Post-MDG 1: Focusing the lens on those still in extreme poverty

Millennium Development Goals: 2015 Progress Chart
Published articles to date: Introduction | MDG 1 | MDG 2 | MDG 3 | MDG 4

Lea en español *** Lisez en français


The United Nations recently issued The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015, the latest assessment of progress towards the eight MDGs. In short, they have had mixed results. This article is part of a blog series reflecting on the MDGs and the U.N. report. These are produced in partnership with our colleagues at RESULTS (our parent organization).


>>Authored by Sabina Rogers and Maeve McHugh with support from Anushree Shiroor from RESULTS UK

MDG 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

graph_MDG1

From The Millennium Development Goals Report, 2015

The overall number of people living in poverty in developing countries fell by more than half since 1990. The rate dropped to 14 percent in 2015 and the absolute number to 836 million people. There has also been significant progress made towards curbing hunger worldwide.

Target 1.A: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1.25 a day

Looking at the regional distribution of data, poverty reduction was concentrated in eastern and southern Asia thanks to immense poverty reduction measures in China and India. Progress is less apparent in other regions. In sub-Saharan Africa, 40 percent of the population still live in extreme poverty, and in western Asia, extreme poverty is actually expected to increase between 2011 and 2015.

The mix of progress and failure provides some guidance to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Namely, they must continue the campaign around eradicating extreme poverty while also confronting challenges that hinder progress in the regions that have seen marginal improvement.

While the world met its goal of halving the proportion of people living in extreme poverty, we must now look with a narrower lens at those remaining in extreme poverty. We must ask what changes must be made to the policies that did not succeed.

Full and productive employment

Target 1.B: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people

From The Millennium Development Goals Report, 2015

From The Millennium Development Goals Report, 2015

This target faced various challenges. First, the global labor force grew, and continues to grow, faster than employment opportunities. The global working-age population that is employed actually declined 2 percent between 1991 and 2015. (The 2008-09 global economic crisis certainly didn’t help.)

Youth (15-24 years) are especially affected by unemployment, with three times as many unemployed than adults. Young women are especially affected by unemployment and have few employment opportunities. They face unequal access to work as well as unequal pay, inadequate social protection, and unsatisfactory access to assets. These factors all contribute to women’s overall greater vulnerability of living in poverty.

Additionally, the situation is precarious for both those living just above the $1.25 a day line and those working in vulnerable employment conditions (i.e., unpaid family workers and own-account workers). Half of the developing regions’ workforce live on less than $4 a day, necessitating improvements in social protection programs and policies that see beyond extreme poverty. We need to take into account what comes after.

Halving hunger

Target 1.C: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger

From The Millennium Development Goals Report, 2015

From The Millennium Development Goals Report, 2015

Progress has alternated between slow and rapid declines in the proportion of undernourished people since 1990. Current estimates indicate that approximately 795 million people are undernourished globally, and for the developing regions, the proportion of undernourished people is projected to drop to 12.9 percent, or 780 million, in 2014-2016.

The vast majority of undernourished people live in developing regions. They experience various risks of food insecurity, namely natural disasters, volatile commodity prices, rising food and energy costs, and periods of economic stagnation, among other difficulties.

Addressing child health, specifically, is an important challenge to tackle in order to end hunger. While the proportion of underweight children under the age of five has been halved, the absolute numbers are still high at 90 million. Furthermore, sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia are home to nearly 90 percent of all underweight children.

Looking Forward

SDG 1The world has made immense progress in improving the lives of millions of people since 1990. While MDG 1 can be called a qualified success, the targets must remain a linchpin in the post-2015 agenda. Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 1 is to “End poverty in all its forms everywhere.” However, the SDGs, which are to be approved at the U.N. General Assembly next month, need to address the shortfalls in reaching the MDGs within regions and the individual factors that combine to cause people to slide back into poverty.

SDG 2SDG 2 proposes to “End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.” While the MDGs considered only one aspect of undernutrition in children (i.e., underweight), we now have a better understanding of other forms. We know that stunting, wasting, micronutrient deficiencies, as well as overweight and obesity are all important factors to track. These indicators in the SDGs are more reliable than “underweight” alone in predicting growth, development, and well-being of children.

The World Health Assembly (WHA) has also set targets to reduce multiple forms of malnutrition by 2025. If we want the world to commit resources and take action to meet these targets, indicators must be built into the proposed SDGs to track these multiple forms of malnutrition the WHA is seeking to address.

However, early signs point to the inclusion of merely one or two undernutrition indicators as was the case with the MDGs. This will lead to a very limited body of data with which to understand progress in achieving SDG 2 and an inadequate basis on which to measure and predict children’s growth, development, and well-being. Indicators on reducing stunting, wasting, anemia, and overweight that come under SDG 2 as well as promotion of exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of infancy within SDG 3 will give a much more accurate picture of actions being taken, and progress made.

Looking beyond 2015 and the MDGs, it is clear that microfinance has a role to play in supporting achievement of the SDGs. It can be a tool to generate sustainable growth and ultimately create self-sufficiency for poor and vulnerable households.

When proper targeting is employed…

When integrated with important non-financial services like health…

When coupled with government programs like conditional cash transfers…

When the business model measures “success” in terms of their client’s well-being…

When these measures are taken, then microfinance institutions can work directly with individuals living in the very conditions the SDGs are aiming to address. Those living in extreme poverty or fighting hunger can use microfinance as a tool to mitigate the risks they face and seize opportunities to build lasting and positive change in their lives.

Does your microfinance program improve newborn survival?

Products provided to microfinance clients through the “Healthy Mothers, Health Babies” project in the Philippines implemented by the Microcredit Summit Campaign, Freedom from Hunger, and CARD MRI. The products included are selected for their usefulness to women soon to give birth.

Lea en español *** Lisez en français


>>Authored by Larry Reed, Director, Microcredit Summit Campaign

Research from the World Health Organization shows that half of the decline in under-5 child deaths is due to factors outside the health sector. In addition to health improvements, advancements in girls’ education, women’s economic status, water, sanitation and hygiene, energy, and infrastructure all make a vital difference. We believe that the microfinance sector has an important role to play in bringing child mortality down even further.

At the Microcredit Summit Campaign, we know how powerful integrating health programs can be. Microfinance institutions (MFIs) that offer health products and services to their clients help them to manage shocks and improve the health of clients and their families. In partnership with Freedom from Hunger and with the support of Johnson & Johnson, we are working with microfinance partners in India and the Philippines to provide health products and services to hundreds of thousands of families.

In the Philippines, our project focuses on improved health outcomes for pregnant women and their newborns. To date, CARD MRI (our local partner) has delivered the “Healthy Pregnancies Make Healthy Communities” education to nearly 300,000 women clients. The education is delivered using an innovative pictorial learning conversation (PLC) methodology developed by Freedom from Hunger. This PLC module distills important information about pre- and post-natal care into easily digested 15-minute segments.

An image from the “Healthy Pregnancies Make Healthy Communities” PLC. It teaches about the importance of visiting a health facility throughout the pregnancy.

An image from the “Healthy Pregnancies Make Healthy Communities” PLC. It teaches about the importance of visiting a health facility throughout the pregnancy. Contact Cassie Chandler at Freedom from Hunger to learn more about the education module.

At the Community Health Day events organized under the project, thousands of women (pregnant and with newborns) also get free consultations and medical checkups — many for the very first time. In addition, attendees have learned important information for ensuring healthy pregnancies and healthy newborns. Medical professionals have delivered lectures on family planning, signs and symptoms to be aware of during pregnancy, as well as prenatal care like nutrition during pregnancy and post-natal care like breastfeeding or caring for a newborn.

The Campaign is helping CARD and other members of the MFIs for Health consortium to leverage this small, one-time grant by building a strong, local resource base for their work. Through our Campaign Commitments, we are mobilizing microfinance actors around the world to take specific, measurable, and time-bound actions to address the multiple dimensions of poverty. We hope to do the same in the Philippines to improve the health of microfinance clients and their families.

Mapping integrated solutions

An effort is underway to develop a new online map to capture such programs around the world. Called the Newborn Survival Map, this initiative hopes to encourage the development of cross-sector partnerships delivering integrated solutions. In our experience, when an MFI hesitates to introduce health programs, it is often because they say that their job is to provide financial services, not health. In this case, partnering with health development organizations and other health sector actors is a viable alternative to offering health services in-house. The map could direct your organization to potential future partners in health.

The Newborn Survival Map will initially focus on 16 countries where newborn deaths are concentrated (see the map below). It will focus on programs with a total value of US$500,000 and above across 14 different sectors whose work greatly impacts newborn survival. Note that this threshold is for the life of the project and represents a total investment. Investments will also be tracked by sub-region, so it may be that an organization has a series of smaller investments in different locations or over a period of time, but the total current and planned investment for their work in a sub-region may equal or exceed the $500,000 threshold.

Priority countries (MDG 4, child mortality)

Priority countries are India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Democratic Republic of Congo, China, Ethiopia, Angola, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Kenya, Uganda, Afghanistan, Tanzania, Sudan, Sierra Leone, and Niger. Send in your program information by August 24th to be sure that you are included in the Newborn Survival Map.

The initiative is led by FHI 360, an international development organization, in partnership with the MDG Health Alliance and Johnson & Johnson. FHI 360 and partners invite actors in the microfinance sector to take part in this exciting initiative. We encourage you, our audience, to make sure that significant microfinance programs — especially those benefiting women of reproductive age — are represented on The Newborn Survival Map.

The Newborn Survival Map is in collaboration with the Every Newborn Action Plan and in support of the UN Secretary-General’s Every Woman Every Child movement.

Take action today!

Email Christina Blumel (cblumel[at]fhi360.org) with the name and email of a contact person in your organization who will be responsible for getting your microfinance program included on the map. Christina will guide your colleague through the necessary steps to an online form, which takes approximately 20 minutes to fill out.

Many thanks for your partnership as we enter the Sustainable Development Goal era where achievement of the ambitious new goals will require unprecedented levels of collaboration. Read the letter from Leith Greenslade of the MDG Health Alliance inviting your organization to be part of this exciting initiative (and en français).

About the organizations responsible for the map

The MDG Health Alliance is an initiative of the UN Special Envoy for Financing the Health Millennium Development Goals and for Malaria. The Alliance operates in support of Every Woman Every Child, an unprecedented global movement spearheaded by the Secretary-General to mobilize and intensify global action to improve the health of women and children.

FHI 360 is a nonprofit human development organization dedicated to improving lives in lasting ways by advancing integrated, locally driven solutions. Our staff includes experts in health, education, nutrition, environment, economic development, civil society, gender, youth, research and technology — creating a unique mix of capabilities to address today’s interrelated development challenges. FHI 360 serves more than 70 countries and all U.S. states and territories.

At Johnson & Johnson, our Credo inspires our strategic philanthropy to advance the health of communities in which we live and work, and the world community as well. We focus on saving and improving the lives of women and children, preventing disease among the most vulnerable, and strengthening the health care workforce. Together with our partners, we are making life-changing, long-term differences in human health.


Related reading

Community-based financial inclusion: Sarah’s story

Sarah Chikuse standing in front of her pigsty

Sarah Chikuse standing in front of her pigsty. She is proud to be one of the few women encroaching into this previously male dominated agricultural territory. Photo courtesy of Alex Dalitso Kaomba.

Lea en español *** Lisez en français


>>Authored by Alex Dalitso Kaomba, development consultant and freelance writer

At 39 years of age, Sarah Chikuse’s health is visibly better than the other women in her village. A single mother of two, she lives in Kang’oma village on the outskirts of Lilongwe’s Area 23 in Malawi. Her day starts at 4:00 AM when she usually wakes up to the din of her neighbors’ jerry cans and water tins at the only borehole in the village.

Sarah starts by lighting up her charcoal burner so that it gathers heat while she fetches water at the borehole. Next on the routine (if it’s during school term) is preparing her daughters for school. Once she bids her daughters goodbye, she tends to her newly acquired livestock.

Sarah Chikuse_with pigsty

Sarah in front of her pigsty. Acquiring a pig is one highlight on her growing list of achievements. Photo courtesy of Alex Dalitso Kaomba.

Owning livestock is not only a symbol of status for the privileged but also an envied source of income in Malawi, which has one of the lowest livestock herds per family in Southern Africa. Sarah is proud to be one of the few women encroaching into this previously male dominated agricultural territory.

Acquiring a pig is one highlight on her growing list of achievements. Sarah counts herself a success in being able to afford three meals a day for her family and providing her children with a basic education. She has paid their school fees and provides their books, uniforms, and lighting for evening homework.

Two months ago, her daughter contracted malaria, and for the first time, Sarah managed to hire a car and take her to a private clinic where she got rapid, quality care. The hospital bill was US $12, and she managed to pay it in full.

Life before inclusion

Life has not always been so comfortable for Sarah and her family. After a bruising divorce, she was left with less than $4 tied up in her wrapped skirt, and she struggled to make ends meet. She could hardly afford a single meal for her children. She started selling vegetables at a local market, but her family’s daily expenses were much higher than her profits and the business did not grow.

Sarah desperately wanted to get a loan but did not possess any tangible property except the roofing sheets on her two bedroom house. One institution agreed to use the roofing sheets as collateral for a micro business loan, but after careful consideration, she could not accept the offer. She had seen people in her village having roofing sheets confiscated after defaulting on payments, and she was not ready to risk such humiliating consequences.

In January 2015, she joined a self-help group (SHG), a concept championed by a local NGO, Global Hope Mobilization (GHM), which is supported by a $150,000 two-year grant from Vibrant Village Foundation. The doors of opportunity for Sarah started opening then. (GHM’s self-help groups are basically savings groups.)

As a vegetables vendor, Sarah could make $2 a day from which she would have to provide for her family daily needs. However, the SHG she joined required that she contribute $0.20 a week into the pooled funds. She struggled to keep up for two months until her turn to borrow the funds came up. She used all the money she borrowed to buy a variety of vegetables for her fresh produce business.

Photo courtesy of Alex Dalitso Kaomba.

Sarah feeding her livestock. Photo courtesy of Alex Dalitso Kaomba.

Life after inclusion

Sarah showed me a tiny pigsty with one mother pig and eleven piglets, the first time in her whole life that she has owned livestock. In a few months, she expects to sell and collect over $500. This was possible because she joined an SHG from where she accessed loans totaling a little under $100 over a 3-month period. She pumped this money into her fresh farm produce business by ordering a wide variety of vegetables and fruits which her customers had always asked her to stock. Her business revenues increased rapidly.

I asked her what her most outstanding benefit from the SHG was. With a very wide smile and beaming face, Sarah had this to say:

“I was a pauper with no hope, but the SHGs taught me the importance of saving from the little I get and how to access low interest loans. Today I can feed my family good meals every day, I have a piggery project that will soon start bringing me revenues. I intend to diversify into selling kitchenware which brings me higher profits than vegetables and even if I stock more kitchenware it is not perishable.”

Anne Chiudza from Global Hope Mobilization says, “We are aware that the marginalized, poor, and unbanked population has its own means of survival, and from the little they get they can change their lot in life by using their numbers to pool funds together. Our organization believes in facilitating improvement of livelihoods through community owned strategies and the self-help group concept is one such strategy.”

A measure of how these groups can advance community development is a borehole which the women are planning to have drilled in a year’s time at a cost of $4,000 without any donor funding.

Sarah’s story is just one among many in her 20-member group. They have managed to improve the lot of their families by building or improving their homes, by improving their families’ nutrition, and by consolidating their economic independence through self-help groups. There are 15 more groups in surrounding villages, and evidence is clear that the women’s hard work and commitment is bearing fruit for the betterment of Kang’oma community’s standard of living.


More about Global Hope Mobilization’s self-help group model

Global Hope Mobilization’s (GHM’s) self-help groups are savings groups whose sole aim is to provide a low-interest pool fund from which members (and only members) of the group can borrow to inject into their businesses. Members can save through loaning out the savings over a period of four weeks.

The groups loan out the money from the very first meeting. No funds are kept in a box of any sort because soon after contributions have been made, a borrower must take the money immediately. The funds are only deposited in the bank when they have multiplied and no members are ready to borrow that week.

Question: How does GHM create the groups?

Answer: At the beginning of the project last year, Global Hope Mobilization trained four Community Facilitators who were all drawn from the catchment community. Their role is to spearhead the formation of the groups and act as resource persons for the groups on behalf of Global Hope Mobilization.

The SHGs are self-replicating because the roof limit for each group membership is 20 members only. To date GHM, is supporting 100 groups with a total of 2000 members, all of whom are women. There is, however, an emerging demand from men in some villages to join the groups.

Q: Are the SHGs self-sustaining or are they reliant on GHM for ongoing support / hand-holding?

A: The SHGs are self-reliant. GHM only facilitates their financial literacy training and monitors their early growth stages, providing guidance and advisory [services] where needed.

Q: What training does GHM provide to the SHG members? Do they offer other sorts of capacity building like financial literacy, health, women’s empowerment, etc.? Do they try to link SHGs to other services like government social protection services?

A: The flip side of [GHM’s] concept is to provide women with a platform and confidence to identify and demand social services from government departments like water, health, etc. Every group meeting ends with a social discussions segment. All issues are recorded for future reference and actioning. Using the SHG as a nucleus for change, GHM facilitates health talks and [sexual and reproductive health] SRH awareness campaigns.

Q: Do all SHG members take out a loan? Or, do some just use the SHG to save? What is the interest rate on loans (if there is interest) and what is the savings interest rate (if there is one)?

A: Around 75 percent of members take out loans at an average interest rate of 10 percent per month. The loans period is 4 weeks maximum, depending on the loan size and specific group by-laws. Interest [on] savings is 10 percent.


About the author

Alex KaombaAlex Dalitso Kaomba is a 35 year old Malawian rural development consultant and freelance writer. He lives in a village on the outskirts of Lilongwe the capital city of Malawi. He works with International and local NGO’s in Malawian villages in the areas of access to energy for maternal health and education, HIV and Aids, education and environmental interventions. Alex has a passion for development work and the African stories of self-sufficiency and sustainable rural development. His favorite pastime is reading, watching sport and playing cricket.

alex.kaomba[at]gmail.com | @AlexKaomba | https://www.facebook.com/kaomba


Related reading

CGAP’s take on household resilience in Burkina Faso

Marie and Child

“A resilient household is able to find solutions to the various crises it encounters by making good choices in their income-generating activities. A non-resilient home fails to solve crises encountered.” — Marie, a 35-year old first wife of a polygamous family who lives in the Passoré province of Burkina Faso

Lea en español *** Lisez en français


>>Authored by Barakah Ibisomi, Microcredit Summit Campaign Program Intern

Landlocked Burkina Faso is one of the poorest countries in the world with 44.6 percent of its population living on $1.25 or less per day. A recent CGAP publication draws on “resilience diaries” of 46 women in rural households in the northeastern zones of the country to determine how different financial services contribute to and affect household resilience.

Twenty-five women are members of village banks with the Reseau des Caisses Populaires du Burkina Faso (RCPB) while 21 are members of savings groups with the Office de Développement des Eglises Evangéliques (ODE). The seven-month project was conducted by Freedom from Hunger.

The diaries were used to understand the following:

  1. The strategies poor households employ to manage economic, environmental and health shocks that disrupt their financial lives.
  2. The roles formal, non formal and informal financial products play in improving household resiliency and building assets.

Freedom from Hunger Resilience Framework

Burkinabé households are highly influenced by their country’s seasonal and agricultural calendar as it determines how they make a living — specifically, how land is put to use, the degree to which households depend on livestock, and other non-agricultural sources of income. The time just before harvest in September is financially difficult, with income and savings at a low point and borrowing and expenses at a high point. There is a need for additional or specialized financial services to help households better manage the season.

The most common coping strategies used to respond to shocks are first using savings at home, then reducing food consumption, selling grain, selling small livestock, purchasing on credit and lastly, borrowing from a savings group. Borrowing from financial institutions, family and friends is less preferred. As resources become available to them, the women re-prioritize the way they manage any particular shock. For example, after harvest, more sell grain and fewer reduce food consumption, make purchases on credit or borrow from friends and family.

Very few households in Burkina Faso have access to formal financial services so the women’s use of formal financial products is very limited and their demand for it is widely unmet. When asked whether they had all the financial products and services they need, only 17 percent felt they had. There is a strong demand for additional financial products and services, with an emphasis on microcredit, savings products and agricultural-related grants. However, when they do have access, they use formal services to cover costs incurred from shocks. The most common formal products or services used are RCPB loans and remittance services.

The more commonly used non formal services are savings groups which are used to save money for purchasing livestock, paying health expenses, school fees and for food and income generating activity (IGA) expenses. For informal services, the women borrow from friends and family, make purchases on credit from local merchants and, as mentioned earlier, receive remittances often by hand-to-hand transporters. The women reported using non formal and informal financial services significantly more than formal financial services.

All these services help improve cash flow but it is difficult to determine the extent to which they are helpful in building resiliency.

Other key findings from the studied households:

  1. The most common shocks encountered by those studied were illness and injury, loss of livestock, death of family members and poor harvest, all These shocks affected both income-generation as well as food supplies. Other semi-regular shocks included droughts and famine, political crisis, and health threats.
  2. Women play a significant role in the household economy, but are limited byResilience Quote gender norms, time, and resources to pursue more profitable IGAs. The most common IGAs for the participants were the growth and sale of cash crops and petty commerce.
  3. Food insecurity dominates all of the households’ lives.

The concept of resilience is in itself a work-in-progress because of its novelty and multi dimensionality. The RM-TWG defines resilience as “the capacity that ensures adverse stressors and shocks do not have long-lasting adverse development consequences.”

Based on this definition of resilience, it is difficult to consider many of these households resilient because when shocks occur, they use negative coping mechanisms that increase food insecurity, such as reducing daily food consumption and selling grain stocks and livestock meant to be. These strategies solve an immediate problem but can have long-term, long-lasting adverse development consequences.


Get Inspired. Set a Goal. Make a Commitment.

Join the movement to help 100 million families lift themselves out of extreme poverty:


Related reading

Ghana: What lies ahead

Representatives from REST Ethiopia lead a group discussion with a graduation program participant during the Innovations in Social Protection and Livelihoods Development program in 2014.

Lea en español *** Lisez en français


>>Authored by Paul Gostomski, Microcredit Summit Campaign Program Intern

The Microcredit Summit Campaign recently spoke with Mawutor Ablo, director of Social Protection at Ghana’s Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Protection, and also a participant in the Campaign’s Field Learning Program last year, Innovations in Social Protection and Livelihoods Development.

The program invited representatives from Ghana, Malawi, and Mozambique on a trip to observe leading social protection programs in Ethiopia and Mexico. In our discussion with Mr. Mawutor, we spoke about the changes made to Ghana’s social protection programs since we last met and what changes may be made in the future to increase the reach of the programs and strengthen outcomes for Ghana’s poorest.

The Ghana National Household Registry

In May 2014, the World Bank continued its support to Ghana through a credit of US$50 million to Ghana’s Finance Ministry with payments dispersed annually from 2015 to 2017.

The funds are directed to the Ghana Social Opportunities Project, which aims to extend Ghana’s Labor-Intensive Public Works (LIPW) program from 49 to 60 of Ghana’s 216 districts. LIPW also aims to expand the reach of grants from 100,000 to 150,000 poor households through the Livelihood Empowerment against Poverty (LEAP) program.

In addition, the social protection systems will be strengthened through improved targeting and the establishment of the Ghana National Household Registry (GNHR).

Ato Berhanu Woldemichael in a meeting

Mr. Ato Berhanu Woldemichael, as acting State Minister with the Food Security Directorate, oversees much of the government’s role in LEAP and LIPW.

Before the implementation of the household registry system, both LIPW and LEAP screened candidate households in selected districts independently. This has not caused an overlap yet, but with the extension of the Ghana Social Opportunities Project and its intended scaling up of both programs, overlap is inevitable, leading to possible disbursement conflicts between the two programs.

The GNHR will create a database that optimizes methods used in finding and selecting program candidates through a universal survey useful for multiple social protection programs in selecting participating households. Simply put, the GNHR and its universal survey will represent a more efficient and comprehensive method for selecting households for inclusion in the national social protection programs.

Mr. Mawutor expects the registry to improve the ability to target and reach the poorest in Ghana. He compared the registry to that of the successful Cadastro Unico, the national registry of Brazil established in 2001. Three years after Cadastro Unico was created, a study showed that the poorest quartile of the population received 80 percent of all social protection programs’ benefits.

By way of comparison, the cash transfer programs in place prior to the unified registry together distributed only 64 percent of the total benefits to the poorest quartile. This improvement in targeting is something Mr. Mawutor hopes to see take place in GNHR by reducing what he termed inclusion error — the participation of households living above the targeted poverty level — in programs like LEAP and LIPW.

The Move to Mobile Money

Leaders in charge of implementing Ghana’s social protection programs are interested in finding the most efficient way to distribute the cash transfers that are at the center of these initiatives. Currently, the most common method of disbursement is through smart cards. Here, recipients of a cash transfer can go to the post office or another government entity with their smart card to have their payment added to their smart card.

Ghana would like to move from this strategy because of the high transaction costs associated with it. Also, this method does not allow recipients to transfer the money they receive to, for example, a family member in need. Instead, Ghana would like mobile money to be the primary form of receiving cash transfers.

Ghana has already partnered with MTN, a mobile network operator from South Africa, and has thus far reached a point where about 10 percent of its payments are disbursed through mobile systems.

Hoping to expand this number, Mr. Mawutor told us that Ghana would be increasing its total number of providers to four companies this year. With the expansion, Mr. Mawutor hopes to make mobile banking more accessible to poorer areas by increasing the overall number of local branches across the country.

The addition of three new operators would also produce significant returns from the added competition to the market, producing incentives for each company to provide the best service.

Mr. Mawutor Ablo during the Innovations in Social Protection, along with the Hon. Dela Sowa, Deputy Minister of Gender, Children, and Social Protection. Together they have great responsibility for the social protection programing in Ghana.

Growth by Efficiency

Social protection programs in Ghana have made many changes in the past few years and they all seem to focus on efficiency. Both the establishment of the Ghana National Household Registry and the move to mobile money aim to cut the costs associated with these programs. The registry intends to better target those among the poorest in Ghana for participation in the social protection program and reduce the costs to serve them by removing redundancies between the various initiatives.

The move to mobile money aims to make funds more accessible to beneficiaries, increasing the potential for positive outcomes resulting from the programs. With these changes, it is clear Ghana is dedicated to maximizing results.

We look forward to continuing to follow new developments from Ghana over time and continuing to be a close supporter of the work of Ghana’s Ministry of Gender, Children, and Social Protection.


Get Inspired. Set a Goal. Make a Commitment.

Join the movement to help 100 million families lift themselves out of extreme poverty:


Related reading

How you can influence global policy priorities at the World Bank (event)

RESULTS is hosting its 35th annual International Conference on Capitol Hill in Washington DC from July 18th to July 21st, featuring many leading poverty experts, activists. and policy makers.

Join us at the 2015 RESULTS International Conference in Washington, D.C., this July 18-21. Leading poverty experts, activists, policymakers, and YOU will convene for a unique conference that mixes an educational experience and advocacy opportunities around increased access to education, health, and economic opportunity. Together, we can change the world!

Lea en español *** Lisez en français


In just two weeks, RESULTS Educational Fund, the parent organization of the Microcredit Summit Campaign, will celebrate its 35th anniversary with the 2015 International Conference in Washington, D.C. We invite you to join in the festivities and attend our workshop called “Partnerships to End Poverty: Health, Government, and Financial Services” on Sunday, July 19th at 4:30 – 6:00 PM. The conference will be held at the Washington Court Hotel on Capitol Hill.

Only $85 a day!

RESULTS International Conference — only $85 a day!

Attendees of the International Conference will hear from leading experts, activists, and policymakers on the challenges and solutions to ending poverty. Join World Bank President Jim Yong Kim, Senator Sherrod Brown (D-Ohio), and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Muhammad Yunus (and, of course, founder of the Grameen Bank). Find out who else will be speaking here.

The conference agenda is designed to provide the information and tools to influence policymakers — so you can deliver the message directly to your representative on Capitol Hill and policymakers at the World Bank and USAID!

The Microcredit Summit Campaign’s role at RESULTS is to lift up financial inclusion solutions designed for the world’s extreme poor, creating economic opportunities to help lift themselves out of poverty. The Campaign will be leading a workshop at the International Conference about the future of financial inclusion.

Our session, entitled Partnerships to End Poverty: Health, Government, and Financial Services,” will focus on integrated health and microfinance and linking the graduation model and conditional cash transfers (CCTs). Learn why these are key pathways to help end extreme poverty and how you can influence the global development agenda. (Read more about the six pathways.)

Sonja Kelly of the Center for Financial Inclusion at Accion will moderate a panel discussion with Olumide Elegbe of FHI 360 and our own Dr. DSK Rao and Larry Reed. Join us to develop your message and advocacy strategy around financial inclusion to end extreme poverty, and take it directly to major financial inclusion funders like the World Bank and USAID to influence their programmatic priorities in the over coming years.

About the panelists


Sonja Kelly, Fellow, CFI

Sonja Kelly is a fellow at the Center for Financial Inclusion at ACCION (@CFI_ACCION). She conducts research on supply and demand side opportunities to advance financial inclusion around the world, including income growth, demographic change, and policy shifts. Ms. Kelly is finishing her PhD at the School of International Service at American University, writing her dissertation on financial inclusion policy and regulation in low and middle income economies. Her research articulates the ways that international organizations and internal politics influence financial sector policy. She is also a consultant at the World Bank and the president of the DC chapter of Women Advancing Microfinance. Prior to joining CFI, Ms. Kelly worked in microfinance at Opportunity International.

Olumide Elegbe Olumide Elegbe, senior relationship manager at FHI 360, is a health and development expert with demonstrated results of building successful partnerships across sectors and geographies. With a focus on forging trusted, long term partnerships between the government, nonprofit and private sectors, Mr. Elegbe has a track record of brokering collaborative partnerships that drive social change by addressing health, education, sustainability and/or other development challenges. This, while delivering results and outcomes tailored to suit the needs of stakeholder individuals and organizations including market access, efficiencies in supply chain, and contribution to local GDP.

Mr. Elegbe has extensive international and cultural experience, spanning sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern and Western Europe as well as the USA. Prior to joining FHI 360, he worked as a public health specialist and a visiting lecturer in population medicine in the United Kingdom, and as technical advisor on public health programs in Nigeria.

Mr. Elegbe holds a Master’s Degree in Public Health with a minor in Health Services Management from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine in the United Kingdom.

Dr. D.S.K. Rao, Regional Director for Asia-Pacific, Microcredit Summit Campaign

Dr. DSK Rao has been the regional director for the Asia-Pacific region with the Microcredit Summit Campaign since 2000. The Campaign draws heavily on his wide experience and familiarity with the sector while organizing the regional and global summits. Dr. Rao has conducted scores of workshops and trainings on tools for practitioners in Asia to track poverty and other social outcomes including the Cashpor Household Index, Poverty Wealth Ranking, and the Progress out of Poverty Index. Dr. Rao is presently implementing a Johnson & Johnson-funded project for integrating health with microfinance in India, in collaboration with Freedom from Hunger. He has co-authored two books on microfinance: The New Middlewomen and Development and Divinity and Dharma.

Larry Reed, Director, Microcredit Summit Campaign

Larry Reed has headed up the Microcredit Summit Campaign (@MicroCredSummit) since taking over the reins from founder, Sam Daley-Harris in 2011. Mr. Reed has co-authored the annual State of the Campaign Report for the last 5 years. He has worked for more than 25 years in designing, supporting, and leading activities and organizations that empower poor people to transform their lives and their communities. For the majority of that time, Reed worked with Opportunity International, including five years as their Africa regional director and eight years as the first CEO of the Opportunity International Network.


Our workshop will be held on Sunday, July 19th
from 4:30 – 6:00 PM
.

To attend the workshop and the International Conference, email IC2015[at]results.org
or register online

Daily registration is only $85.

RESULTS is an international movement of grassroots advocates raising their voices to end poverty. Through government program and policy advocacy, RESULTS staff and its massive network of grassroots activists help to address the root causes of poverty: lack of access to medical care, education, and opportunity to move up the economic ladder. Click here to read more about RESULTS.


Get Inspired. Set a Goal. Make a Commitment.

Join the movement to help 100 million families lift themselves out of extreme poverty:

The Nepal microfinance sector’s earthquake response

“2015 Nepal depremi” by Hilmi Hacaloğlu.
Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons.

Lea en español *** Lisez en français


>>Authored by Sabina Rogers, Communications and Relationships Manager

In a country with poverty that is already among the highest in the world, the devastating earthquake in Nepal this April caused more destruction and destitution than could have been imagined. The Nepal earthquake, estimated to have been a magnitude of 7.8 to 8.1, caused more than 8,800 deaths and 23,000 injuries. You can read all about the subsequent aftershocks that, in any other situation, would be major events in and of themselves. There is also a great deal of coverage of the toll this has taken on Nepali families and the international response. (Watch this video from The Guardian.)

Major destruction identified using satellite imagery by the crowd-source platform Tomnod. Last updated April 29th, 2015. Source: AidData at the Center for Development Policy

Major destruction identified using satellite imagery by the crowd-source platform Tomnod. Last updated April 29th, 2015.
Source: AidData at the Center for Development Policy (http://labs.aiddata.org/aiddata/nepal)

Recent data shows that it will cost over $6.6 billion and at least five years to rebuild the country, according to Nepali government officials. More than one million people may be stranded in extreme hardship for quite a long time. Local microfinance institutions have been working hard to triage their clients’ needs and thinking longer-term about the best response to this disaster.

RMDC logo-no text

RMDC made a Campaign Commitment in 2014

We have been in communication with Jyoti Chandra Ojha, CEO of the Rural Microfinance Development Centre Ltd. (RMDC), which is a wholesale lending organization in Nepal. Ojha has provided us with the information below concerning the Nepal microfinance sector’s response to the disaster.

The earthquake seriously affected 14 districts in Nepal, and microfinance clients are among the hardest hit. From preliminary information collected by RMDC and its members, here are the statistics of those affected:

  1. No. of MFIs affected: 29 (only 4 are highly affected)
  2. No. of branches of the 29 MFIs: 142
  3. Members/clients affected: 129,000
  4. Member deaths: 126
  5. Homes of members destroyed: 163
  6. Branches of MFIs damaged: 7
  7. Houses of Staff damaged: 90
  8. Staff deaths: 1
  9. Portfolio affected: Rs 2.44 billion
  10. RMDC Portfolio affected with MFIs: Rs. 1.29 billion

These details provide a snapshot of the disaster caused to Nepal’s microfinance sector by the April earthquake. On the basis of preliminary analysis, RMDC and their members are in the process of finalizing the following action plan:

Settlement of the survivors affected from the disaster

  • Providing soft loans to rebuild homes: temporary for short-term needs and then planned homes for the long-term
  • Managing the livelihoods of the affected families
  • Managing daily necessities
  • Health and education

Creating conducive economic environment

  • Devising to revive the old economic and farm activities
  • Identifying appropriate local based microenterprises
  • Skill development trainings

Financial Resource management

  • Rescheduling/ writing off of the affected farm and microenterprise loans
  • Providing new loans at lower interest rates
  • Additional Rs. 2 billion will be required to finance in the affected districts

Technical Support

  • Disaster management training
  • Workshop on rehabilitation of affected MFI branches
  • Developing new microenterprises
  • Skill development trainings

RMDC welcomes your support and assistance in carrying out this action for the disaster affected families of Nepal. Contact RMDC today:

Rural Microfinance Development Centre Ltd.
Putalisadak, Kathmandu, Nepal
P.O.Box: 20789
Tel. No.: 977-01-4268019/4268020
Fax: 977-01-4247702
Email: rmdc@wlink.com.np
http://www.rmdcnepal.com/

“Collapsed buildings in earthquake-hit Chautara, Nepal” by DFID – UK Department for International Development
Licensed under CC BY 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons.

How you can donate to the ongoing response effort

You can send individual donations to GlobalGiving’s Nepal Earthquake Relief Fund. Additionally, Save the Children has a dedicated Nepal Earthquake Relief Fund. A list of organizations accepting donations for relief efforts is available from William & Mary’s Reves Center for International Studies.

Related reading

The Puzzle of Poverty: Embera Puru Edition

Lea en español *** Lisez en français


>>Authored by Kristin Smith, Program Intern for the 100 Million Project

jjjjJust a few weeks before joining the Microcredit Summit Campaign team, I traveled with Global Brigades to teach financial literacy workshops and provide microenterprise consulting to small business owners in an indigenous community in Panama.

The program, founded in 2003, sends university students from the United States and select European countries on a series of brigades to Panama, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Ghana to “strengthen the health and economic development of communities” by meeting a certain aspect of their “holistic model.” Learn more.

Their holistic model attempts to assess and address the most dire needs of developing communities in an intentionally sequenced process to help them achieve a state of sustainable self-sufficiency.

Panama holistic model

Click on image to see in expanded view

Under the holistic model developed specifically for Panama, the process begins with Global Brigades employees researching the region and evaluating the community through a process of “integrated community development” to understand its most pressing needs.

Initially, the program sends medical and dental brigades — passionate volunteers working to mobilize positive social change — to the communities to provide mobile medical and dental clinics. Community banks are then established by a group of community members with guidance from Global Brigades staff to encourage saving for health needs and emergencies. Once established, the community banks begin distributing loans to community members for environmental projects and new business developments.

My brigade, composed of my colleagues from the University of California-Berkeley and others from Arizona State University, was excited to complete the Global Brigades puzzle (that is, the holistic model). Our role was to teach financial literacy and perform business consultations in the community of Embera Puru.

Embera Puru is an indigenous community of some 250 individuals in the Darien Province. Located in Eastern Panama near the Colombian border. Embera Puru is an Embera community, one of the largest indigenous groups in Panama and Colombia. The community members’ main source of income is agriculture, producing crops such as plantains, yucca, rice, and otoe (a local root vegetable), and creating artisan handicrafts.

With guidance from Global Brigades, the community established a caja rural (community bank) to encourage savings and loan making within the community. Embera Peru’s caja now has 21 members with 21 active savings accounts, but there are still many among the 266 inhabitants without this means to save.

Comparable to a savings group, a caja rural is a group of men and women who pool their funds to create a solid financial base, providing savings and loan services for themselves and for the entire community. Despite the initial contributions of Global Brigades, the caja is entirely owned and operated by members of the community.

Because the indigenous communities of Panama are predominantly closed economies, community groups eschew money from the outside and make weekly savings deposits into the community bank to begin their work. Group members manage the fund themselves, make decisions about who can receive loans and under what terms, and hold each other accountable for loan repayment.

As part of our business consultation work, we met with representatives from the community’s “Environmental Committee,” a group of farmers producing beyond self-sufficiency for distribution within the community, to ask simple questions to best understand the level of business assistance they needed.

The president of this group, a man by the name of Marcelino, also happens to be the treasurer of the caja rural, as well as a community teacher. Through conversation with Marcelino, we learned that his bookkeeping records won their bank a prize for “Caja with the best bookkeeping management” at a board of directors microfinance workshop in Panama City.

Analyzing the business’s books and records, we found a very thorough system and were stumped on how else to proceed with our consultation. (Aside from our recommendation that they include an inventory management system in preparation for increased production.) Not long into our conversation with these experienced committee leaders about potential business obstacles, we found ourselves confronted with an irritated committee leader and community elder who expressed his frustration with the focus of our questions and our work.

He argued that the group’s record-keeping strategies were highly insignificant in comparison to the group’s utter lack of inventory. It turns out that there was a community water shortage resulting from a collapsed well and a series of unfinished agricultural projects throughout the farm.

“Money,” he said. “We need your help on the farm, we need more crops, and we need money.” My observation was that the present infrastructure severely lacked sufficient capital to support a self-interacting and self-sustaining community.

As I sit now at my desk here in Washington, D.C., far removed from this man and his community, I face the internal debate of whether our work and efforts in microfinance are indeed meeting the direst needs of these people. My short time in Panama reinforced my understanding that development is a puzzle that we do not always equip ourselves to solve. Regardless of the practicality of the services we were working to provide, if other pieces of the complex puzzle are not fully in place, the outcomes in general are undermined.

Increased financial access serves as the window of opportunity for many entrepreneurs throughout the developing world, but without the proper environment and sufficient infrastructure, access to money is rather trivial.

Prioritizing the views, aspirations, and goals of clients or other program beneficiaries is critical as well. As economist William Easterly often argues, no matter how well-intentioned our efforts, without proper feedback from those receiving the assistance, how are we to measure the effectiveness and progress of our efforts? Under my interpretation, Global Brigades was not responsive to the needs and aspirations of its clients.

While the Embera Puru puzzle remains unsolved because the other pieces were never correctly and fully placed, I am glad to know that the industry and many of its institutions are making great strides towards increased attention to feedback from clients and beneficiaries as well as accountability of institutions to deliver on their objectives. Despite the puzzle’s sheer complexity, we have all the pieces and the ability to work with the poor to solve it.

I encourage Global Brigades to join the Microcredit Summit Campaign in making a specific, measurable, and time-bound Commitment on their efforts to end extreme poverty.

Related reading

Equitas commits to improve focus on clients and service coverage

Read the press release announcing Equitas’ Campaign Commitment
Read their Commitment letter
Photo courtesy of Equitas

Lea en español *** Lisez en français


The Microcredit Summit Campaign welcomes Equitas, a major Indian microfinance institution (MFI), as the 56th organization to make a Campaign Commitment, joining a global coalition working to help 100 million families lift themselves out of extreme poverty.

Equitas is committing to expand its financial services and non-financial services to the following number of clients in the financial year 2015-2016 :

  • Provide 1.5 million clients with financial services.
  • Cover 70,000 clients under the food security program.
  • Cover 50,000 clients under the health education program.
  • Screen the health of 850,000 clients.
  • Partner hospitals will provide 3,000 Equitas clients discounted consultation/ treatment.
  • Use the Progress out of Poverty Index to measure the poverty level of 1.5 million clients.
  • Provide financial support to 3,000 disabled women.
  • Rehabilitate 200 homeless pavement dwellers.
  • Screen, educate, and track the health of 3,500 students in the 6 schools run by Equitas Trust.
  • Provide gainful employment to 15,000 unemployed youth.
  • Train 50,000 women in new skills to increase their income.

P.N. Vasudevan, founder and managing director of Equitas Micro Finance India P. Ltd., explains their mission and how they support the well-being of their clients:

“When we founded Equitas in 2007, we wanted to create an MFI which would be a global benchmark in fairness and transparency, two facets sadly missing from most of the MFIs globally.  Equitas is a Latin word meaning ‘Equitable,’ which means fair and transparent, and this philosophy is woven into every action of Equitas.  Equitas had started lending at 25.5% in 2007 (at a time when the other MFI rates were in the high thirties) and after 4 years, Reserve Bank of India capped the lending rate for MFIs in India at 26%! The Equitas Ecosystem Model is designed to support the well-being of our clients by providing financial and non financial services with a clear focus to address a large spectrum of their requirements in the field of health, education, skill development, food security during emergencies, placement for unemployed youth and many more.”

Equitas is an NBFC MFI with headquarters at Chennai, India, and operations in eight states, namely Tamil Nadu, Pondy, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Chattisgarh. Equitas has about 2.8 million active borrowers as of 31st March, 2015. Along with financial services, Equitas is also promoting several non-financial services aiming at holistic development of their clients and their families.

Read Commitment Letter from Equitas.

The Microcredit Summit Campaign looks forward to welcoming our new partners to the global coalition and sharing their progress towards the Commitment achievement at the 18th Microcredit Summit. The Campaign’s 100 Million Project is building a movement among financial service stakeholders committed to helping to end extreme poverty through: public statements of commitment to action, expanding practices to reliably measure movement out of extreme poverty, and promoting innovations and best practices to accelerate movement out of poverty.


We invite you to join Equitas and…

Get Inspired. Set a Goal. Make a Commitment.

Join the movement to help 100 million families lift themselves out of extreme poverty:

The Business of Doing Good: A Chat with Anton Simanowitz

BizofDoingGoodCover

The Business of Doing Good by Anton Simanowitz and Katherine Knotts

Lea en español *** Lisez en français


Larry Reed, director of the Microcredit Summit Campaign, recently sat down with Susy Cheston, senior advisor to FI2020, and Anton Simanowitz, co-author of the new book The Business of Doing Good, to discuss how organizations can do good work and turn a profit, particularly in the microfinance sector.

In exploring this question, Simanowitz draws on key insights from the new book, in which he and co-author Katherine Knotts studied the success of AMK, a social enterprise which has touched the lives of millions of people living in poverty in rural Cambodia. This study revealed six powerful strategies to improve business to do good:

  1. Don’t just offer products; respond to client needs
  2. Ask good questions and have good conversations
  3. Do what it says on the tin
  4. Motivate staff to do difficult work in an excellent way
  5. Own the dirt road
  6. Adapt to the changing landscape

Find out more about the thinking behind these insights.

In the latter half of the book, the authors explore the disconnect between theory and practice and the resulting implications for client value. AMK’s success is largely attributed to its recognition of the distinction between client wants and client needs, which are rooted in the meaningful conversations the organization has with its clients. The authors observe, through their exploration of AMK, that vision is ensured only when it follows intent, instead being constrained by conventional wisdom.

Simanowitz was here in D.C. yesterday to discuss his book with Larry Reed and Susy Cheston on-site at the Center for Financial Inclusion. He spoke about the importance of conversation in the social sector, both with customers and within the organization itself. From his exploration of AMK, Simanowitz noted that client-centricity extends far beyond identifying the needs of the clients and becomes a feedback loop built on what he called conversational interplay.

An organization that successfully addresses the reality gap between theory and practice, he argues, embraces reality. It understands that following its social vision is everyone’s responsibility and so is built into the business model. Anton noted that we all have something to learn from this exploration of AMK, an organization that “has the client in their DNA” and “reinforces the truism that focus on the customer is good for business.”

Listen to the conversation


If you prefer, you can stream the podcast from SoundCloud, or you can download the audio file.

Voice your opinion in our comments section. How can organizations best do good and do well?

Following the conversation, we asked Larry and Anton to write up a few closing thoughts.

Larry said, “What struck me from our conversation today was how much the lessons we learn from AMK apply to any social enterprise that seeks to expand the positive results achieved by its clients while also earning enough income to sustain itself and grow. Social enterprises need to align all their people and systems around their mission, and they do this with good data, engaging and open conversations, lots of iterations and improvements, incentives that reward behavior that promotes the mission, and a governance structure that reviews performance according to mission at every meeting. The result is an enterprise whose corporate culture can consistently generate creative responses to changing client needs.”

Anton said, “Countless organizations of every shape, size, and orientation — not just in the realm of microfinance — are in the business of doing good and working with poor and vulnerable communities around the world to deliver potentially life-changing services to address a range of pressing social needs. Some are doing excellent work, and this book examines what it is that they do that makes the difference. But at the same time, a common theme has emerged in our work over the past 20 years: we see organisations missing opportunities to do things better and organisations getting things wrong, again and again. When surveying the landscape of missed opportunities, there is temptation to become blindsided by the success stories, but we must deliver on the ethical imperative to make good on our good intentions. This book explores the inevitable shortcomings of every success story and how we can learn from those who are ‘doing good’ well.”

The authors of The Business of Doing Good argue that social enterprises and organizations must understand the importance of response, be it to environment, best practices, or client needs and capacities. The Business of Doing Good challenges microfinance practitioners, social entrepreneurs, philanthropists, businessmen, and students of all kinds to reevaluate their respective journeys to deliver on their good intentions throughout their work and beyond.


Anton Simanowitz (@antowitz) has worked for the past 20 years to support social enterprises to be more effective in delivering impact, and for those who support and invest in them to make better investment, capacity building and policy decisions. For support on building organizations to deliver impact, contact him here. To receive current updates about The Business of Doing Good, follow the book on Twitter.

Larry Reed is the director of the Microcredit Summit Campaign (@MicroCredSummit). He has worked for more than 25 years in designing, supporting and leading activities and organizations that empower poor people to transform their lives and their communities. For most of that time Reed worked with Opportunity International, including five years as their Africa regional director and eight years as the first CEO of the Opportunity International Network

Susy Cheston is senior advisor for the Center for Financial Inclusion (CFI) at Accion (@CFI_ACCION) and leads the Financial Inclusion 2020 Campaign. Cheston has a long history of work in economic development, including leading roles at World Vision and Opportunity International, as well as being active in the leadership of the Microenterprise Coalition.


Related reading

Grama Vidiyal commits to expanding health services to clients

Read the press release announcing Grama Vidiyal’s Campaign Commitment
Read their Commitment letter
Photo courtesy of Grama Vidiyal

Lea en español *** Lisez en français


The Microcredit Summit Campaign welcomes Grama Vidiyal, a major Indian microfinance institution (MFI), as the 55th organization to make a Campaign Commitment, joining a global coalition working to help 100 million families lift themselves out of extreme poverty.

Grama Vidiyal commits to expand its financial and non-financial services to the following number of clients in the financial year 2015-2016:

  • Provide an additional 150,000 clients with financial services in FY15
  • Help 1,050,000 community members through Grama Vidiyal’s empowerment program.
  • Organize 720 health camps for clients, screening 300,000 members.
  • Provide 10,000 clients with discounted consultation/treatment in partner hospitals.
  • Provide health education to 80,000 client families (or community).
  • Give access to health related products and medicines to 150,000 clients.
  • Help 800,000 clients with the Free Meals program.
  • Install 1,000 household toilet connections and 4,000 water tap connections.
  • Establish 80 Community Knowledge Centers, engaging 30 poor students each (a total of 2,400 students), to motivate learning basic math and English.
  • Help 500,000 clients with the Health Service and Development Program that provides sanitary napkins for women.
  • Use the Progress out of Poverty Index to measure the poverty level of 35,000 clients.

Sathianathan Devaraj, chairman and managing director of Grama Vidiyal, explains the importance of microfinance as a means to financial inclusionhealth:

“Microfinance is a very important tool for financial inclusion, which provides financial services for poor entrepreneurs and small businesses lacking access to formal banking and related services. Microfinance creates a window for the poor where they can access quality financial services such as credit, savings, insurance etc., without inhibition. A double bottom line approach with the right balance of fiscal performance and positive social impact is key to the microfinance’s success. Formal banks identified and promoted bankable people, but microfinance introduced and proved that even the poor are trustworthy and bankable.”

Grama Vidiyal is one of the largest Indian microfinance institutions, serving one million clients over 5 Indian states. Their objective is to focus on eradication of poverty and improving the standard of living of downtrodden women.

Read Campaign Commitment letter from Grama Vidiyal.

The Microcredit Summit Campaign looks forward to welcoming our new partners to the global coalition and sharing their progress towards the Commitment achievement at the 18th Microcredit Summit. The Campaign’s 100 Million Project is building a movement among financial service stakeholders committed to helping to end extreme poverty through: public statements of commitment to action, expanding practices to reliably measure movement out of extreme poverty, and promoting innovations and best practices to accelerate movement out of poverty.


We invite you to join Grama Vidiyal and…

Get Inspired. Set a Goal. Make a Commitment.

Join the movement to help 100 million families lift themselves out of extreme poverty:

Measuring client health outcomes using simple indicators

A local community health volunteer trained and supervised by Bandhan, an Indian MFI, meets with members of a local self-help group and their families. (Photo courtesy of Johnson & Johnson)

A local community health volunteer trained and supervised by Bandhan, an Indian MFI, meets with members of a local self-help group and their families. (Photo courtesy of Johnson & Johnson)

Lea en español *** Lisez en français


>>Authored by Sabina Rogers, Communications and Relationships Manager

More than two years ago, we set out with Freedom from Hunger to develop and test a standardized set of health indicators as part of a Campaign Commitment we co-launched in 2013. This has culminated with the release of Healthy, Wealthy and Wise: How Microfinance Institutions Can Track the Health of Clients. The report describes our experience in selecting and pilot-testing a set of indicators. It will help you choose the right indicators for monitoring client health outcomes over time. And finally, the report summarizes key recommendations for developing “standardized” client outcome monitoring indicators.

We hope financial services providers and others will use our “health outcome performance indicators” (HOPI) to assess the health and well-being of clients and their families. We believe that wide usage of the HOPI would create short- and long-term value for practitioners (both health and financial services), social investors and donors, raters, and other actors. “Health” is a basic need that crosses all borders and all demographics, making the HOPI compelling measures for understanding client outcomes for financial service providers.

Four MFIs pilot tested the HOPI in 2014 (see below), and we shared results from ESAF’s and Equitas’ experiences in India in a webinar in March.

Financial Service Provider Country No. of Clients being served by FSP No. of clients participating in health indicators survey
ESAF India 450,000 700
Equitas India 1,344,361 551*
CARD Philippines 1,828,052 472
ADRA Peru 17,039 95

*Equitas had completed 234 surveys by the time we began data analysis. Therefore, the HOPI report only covers analysis for the first 234 data points

The HOPI measure 6 dimensions: poverty, food security and nutrition, preventive health care, curative health care, water and sanitation, and attitudes. The results from these four MFIs highlighted the added value of health indicators when combined with poverty measurement in helping MFIs understand client well-being. For example, the food security measure was useful to detect vulnerability; while very few clients in Peru fell under any of the poverty lines, 40 percent of them scored as food insecure.

We also found that whether clients treat their water was most frequently associated with poverty levels. However, to correctly interpret this measure, this dimension should not be used without assessing household drinking-water sources as well.

The curative health care dimension results were particularly informative and the questions have broad applicability across contexts. Results from the four MFIs showed that up to 60 percent of clients didn’t seek treatment because of costs. In Peru and the Philippines, we also learned that clients were not very confident in their ability to cover future health costs or to receive adequate medical care.

Because it’s so context-specific, the preventive health care dimension is the most complicated, yet it is also very important to include because it could be predictive of future health outcomes. As we look at adapting to new countries, national health surveys will be the most useful source for indicators.

While collecting the data was fairly simple, the bigger test will come from an organization’s ability to analyze and interpret the data so that action can be taken. In the pilots, we provided technical support to the four MFIs to analyze the data, but that level of input is not likely to be sustainable. Therefore, we are now developing an easy-to-use, Excel-based data collection and analysis tool for distribution later this year. If you are curious, then, about the health outcome performance indicators, here is what you should know:

  • They are practical to measure and monitor client health over time (annually or as part of other monitoring tools such as the Progress out of Poverty Index®).
  • They can be reported by clients in a monitoring survey.
  • They can be benchmarked to other regional, national, and global health goals and data.
  • They are reliable and are subject to change over time.
  • They will be relevant and useful for FSPs to measure and improve measures of program impact on client health and well-being.
  • They will provide donors, investors, government, health actors, and others with important information to guide decisions about support and social investment.

If you would like to learn how you can adapt the HOPI to your institution’s needs, contact Bobbi Gray (email) or DSK Rao (email).

Related reading

World Bank report documents progress on poverty reduction and path ahead for Ethiopia

Beehives

Beehives

Lea en español *** Lisez en français


>>Authored by Jesse Marsden, Research and Operations Manager

The World Bank released a report in January about the progress made on poverty reduction in Ethiopia between 2000 and 2011, and it described what will be needed to end extreme poverty by 2030. Given our program with MasterCard Foundation in 2014 (see this post summarizing the “Innovations in Social Protection” program) this was of particular interest to us.

The Campaign is also increasingly focused on understanding how 6 key financial inclusion pathways are showing great promise in contributing to the end of extreme poverty.

The report suggests that Ethiopia’s concerted, collaborative, and well-supported poverty reduction effort has been a success story with remarkable results. In 2000, 56 percent of the population lived below the World Bank extreme poverty line of $1.25 a day PPP. By 2011, that rate had fallen a dramatic 25 points to 31 percent of the population. It is good to see too that the Bank report also covers non-income indicators, noting that as compared to 2000, by 2011 most Ethiopians had better health, education, and living standards as well as improved life expectancy. Access to basic services improved by double (meaning electricity and water in the home).

The report notes that this rate of progress is uncommon on the continent and is second only to the rate of poverty reduction seen in Uganda over the same period. It also seems that the right places received the attention needed. That is to say that regions with higher rates of poverty saw some of the most dramatic declines, particularly citing Tigray where the Campaign visited during our field visit in 2014.

In places where dramatic growth like this takes place, one of the oft noted concerns is that the gains from improvements are being felt by a limited segment of the population (usually those who were better off already). One of the most impressive statitstics concerning the poverty reduction seen in Ethiopia is that during this period the already low inequality level was maintained.

Success factors

So what has been at the heart of this progress? The report cites a wide range of factors, accurately reflecting the multi-faceted nature of poverty reduction efforts. It is worth noting however that the report does accredit the greatest share of poverty reduction having resulted mainly from a single sector, namely the rural, self-employed, agriculture sector. While factors such as consistently good rainfall and high food prices have played a positive role, the report notes the importance of some more intentional efforts.

The Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) launched in 2005 (and a key part of our visit in 2014) has played an important role in poverty reduction by both directly reducing poverty rates by 2 percent as well as contributing indirectly through increasing agriculture input use and thereby increasing productivity. In addition, public investment has been “central” to the government development strategy and “redistribution has been an important contributor to poverty reduction.”

Ethiopia bases public spending decisions on a central and publicly accessible Growth and Transformation Plan. This strategy places primary importance on sectors crucial to poverty reduction including food security, education, health, roads, and access to water. With this plan in place since 2005 (concurrent with the launch of PSNP) public investments in social protection, agriculture and food security, and access to basic services have been key drivers of poverty reduction in Ethiopia.

Getting to zero extreme poverty

Where do we go from here? 31 percent of the population living below the extreme poverty line is still a huge extreme poverty rate. Based on our visits with policymakers and program implementers on the ground in Ethiopia last year, it is apparent that a continued focus on maintaining and expanding the gains seen from 2000 to 2011 in poverty reduction remain a central focus of key actors in Ethiopia now 3-4 years later.

The report says the future of poverty reduction will rest on as many different areas of work as it took to achieve the progress so far. The strategy presented seems to come down to a dual focus on increasing employment and economic opportunity in urban areas, and increasing agricultural production in rural regions. This is a very simplified presentation of a nuanced and complex set of approaches laid out in the report.

We are also encouraged by how well many of the recommendations echo what we saw on the ground in 2014 as well as what we seem to be seeing emerging as some of the key interventions for financial inclusion that will help end extreme poverty. One recommendation of particular note was for programs to move from a geographical approach for interventions (say, targeting a state or region) to one targeting a condition. The PSNP already works in this fashion as the program targets those meeting the definition of “food insecure” rather than organizing its deployment based on location.

Public works under the PSNP

Public works under the PSNP

One of the six pathways the Campaign is focused on is agricultural finance and value chain improvements. The Bank report points to the need for Ethiopia to continue strong support of agricultural production as a key driver of future poverty reductions. The PSNP program which included a public works component to increase access to irrigation and reduce arable land erosion. Additionally, the R4 program addresses weather related shocks and other agricultural risks, mentioned specifically in the report, through both avenues of response to events after they occur as well as preventative measures to mitigate the negative effects of future events.

We think it would be important for operators such as REST, one of the NGO implementers of the PSNP, to increase their activities around building the capacity of female farms managers to generate higher returns from their activities. In addition, the government should investigate how, though national-level programming, it can also support increased attention and support for female farm managers. Citing potential causes such as poor access to land or agricultural inputs, the report points out that female-managed farms produce 23 percent less than male managed farms. Ending extreme poverty will require addressing this gender discrepancy through policies that foster changes in institutional behavior and gender norms. This can be led perhaps by investigating how an add-on benefit to PSNP could be an agent for this change.

The report also supports the continuance and even growth of the use of social safety nets (such as cash transfers). It looks closely at the difference between indirect transfers via subsidies to producers of certain basic needs and direct transfers to the actual individuals. It ultimately recommends that spending on subsidies would have a great impact on poverty reduction if they were converted to direct transfers. The Campaign has pointed to greater use of technology to increase access to financial tools such as savings accounts, and groups like the Better Than Cash Alliance are also showing the power of using digital payments by governments.

Given Ethiopia’s still-limited mobile network infrastructure, making use of a digital payments platform to more accurately and cost-effectively deliver direct transfers may still be years away. However, we feel that building this infrastructure as a means to utilizing technology in its poverty reduction strategies will be important and should have received some attention in the report. Such a platform would support the report’s dual urban-rural approach since transfer programs exist both in urban and rural areas. Farmers can also receive information on market prices through mobile devices, thus enabling them to sell their products at the optimal profit. This can positively impact areas the report considers important, namely agricultural production, payment for inputs, and access to employment opportunities. We think this is an area missed by the report.

The report also places a great deal of emphasis on fostering employment in urban areas, noting that urban poverty in Addis Ababa tracks employment rates. While the report notes that employment won’t fully address urban poverty on its own, increasing such opportunities for the urban poor and self-employed is important. The report recommends decreasing the costs and barriers to migrating from rural to urban centers and supporting the entry and growth of firms who have the capacity to hire many employees.

Where the report suggests increased support will contribute to poverty reduction is in supporting self-employment in non-agricultural work. BRAC’s graduation model, one of the six pathways we recommend as a financial inclusion intervention key to ending extreme, can help. We spoke with graduates of REST’s graduation program in 2014, and it was clear to us that the program has had positive impacts. Now those anecdotes are backed up by evidence of the effectiveness of the graduation approach, not least of which are the recent set of studies published in Science a few weeks ago. They demonstrate the positive outcomes from the graduation approach, highlighting its importance as a financial inclusion pathway that is working well.

REST supports positive outcomes for its graduation participants by providing access to market research. Participants thus understand what kinds of income-generating activities have a better likelihood to succeed in their given location. Moreover, the graduation model concludes with a direct transfer that does not require a participant to choose self-employment over employment, allowing for perhaps the kind of flexibility the report might recommend — particularly in an urban setting.

The fifth financial inclusion intervention that the Campaign sees as key to ending extreme poverty is savings (and savings groups in particular as they are often able to reach persons banks can’t or won’t.) However, savings is markedly absent from the report. There is some discussion of addressing the ability for individuals to more easily liquidate assets such as land in order to facilitate urban migration, but little is mentioned concerning savings as a means to build an asset base and whether this can be a driver of poverty reduction in the future for Ethiopia.

We know from our visit that REST graduation participants are connected to formal savings accounts as well as financial capacity building resources to support them in making the most of those accounts. So we were surprised to see a discussion of asset building — savings in particular — so absent from the report. We think this should be an additional area of focus for poverty reduction strategies going forward.

Savings as a strategic element could be important to pursue in tandem with supporting the growth of the mobile network infrastructure since there are cost savings to be realized with providing mobile-based savings platforms. Savings incentives and programs could also be tied to the cash transfers of PSNP or the other safety net initiatives in Ethiopia. Savings accounts could become the landing point for those transfers on a future digital cash transfer platform.

Our recommendations

As a whole, we find the report extremely thorough concerning the approaches it covered and very much tied to the experience seen on the ground — as least in so far as our limited view into programs in Ethiopia from our Innovations in Social Protection program affords us. Of the six financial inclusion areas the Campaign sees as key to ending extreme poverty, three (agricultural finance and value chains, conditional and cash transfers, and the graduation approach) are mentioned in detail in the reports assessment of what will be needed to end extreme poverty in Ethiopia. We think that graduation programs can be a key response to the report’s recommendation to build opportunities for self-employment in non-agricultural activities.

Further consideration, however, should be given to the potential for digital technology platforms to play a powerful role in facilitating and improving the cash transfer programs. Though, Ethiopia will need to improve its telecommunications infrastructure to make this a possibility. Savings also has a role to play in supporting individuals’ ability to build an asset base which will help them seize opportunities and resist vulnerabilities. By linking cash transfers on digital platforms to savings accounts, this also can be an important part of Ethiopia’s financial inclusion strategies in the future.

E-Workshop Recap: Helping Clients to Prepare for their Old Age

Lea en español *** Lisez en français


On June 9th, the Microcredit Summit Campaign co-hosted with the Center for Financial Inclusion (CFI) an E-Workshop focusing on financial inclusion for the elderly. This is part of their 2014 Campaign Commitment to bring greater attention to the issue of aging and financial services and to further support the inclusion of those with disabilities. HelpAge International and Micro Pension Foundation helped make it a great discussion about opportunities for organizations (specifically microfinance institutions) to help clients prepare for their old age. The conversation looked both at the supply and demand sides of financial inclusion to better understand what is happening in clients’ lives and how best to approach these issues.

Watch the session recording:

Review the panelists’ slides:

Recap of the E-Workshop

Sonja Kelly from CFI introduced the focus of the session:

“Financial services needs change throughout the lifecycle, and if a client of microfinance services reaches their old age without having developed a plan to meeting their expense needs, it will be too late. Almost all participants in our webinar reported that they knew someone who had inadequately prepared for their older age. This common issue is one that microfinance can help to address by developing longer term savings products and pensions either in-house or through partnerships.”

Eppu Mikkonen-Jeanneret, head of policy at HelpAge International, began the discussion introducing the shift in populations and subsequently labor markets, noting that there are currently about 800 million people who are over 60 around the world. In 15 years, there will be over 1.3 billion people over the age of 60, of which 60 percent will live in low- and middle-income countries.

The common perception is that the 60 percent in low- and middle-income countries either will not save for their old age or lack the capacity to do so. However, the Global Findex report, which looks at the demand side data of financial inclusion, shows otherwise. According to the report, almost 25 percent of all adults say they have saved for old age in the past year — though it is predominately happening in high-income OECD countries and in East Asia and the Pacific. “Around 40 percent of adults in these two regions reported saving for old age, a far greater share than the roughly 10 percent who reported doing so in all other regions” (The Global Findex Database 2014, page 47).

Eppu explained that 18 percent of the pyramid base reported having saved for old age and 60 percent of the top. Sonja Kelly (CFI) noted that the question now is whether they are doing so in safe and secure mechanisms.

Eppu  expanded on this issue following the session, saying,
url

“The world is in the middle of demographic sea change; the global population is growing older. This is a result of hugely successful development. We are healthier and better educated, we have less children and we live longer. As a result, in just 15 years the population of 60 years and over will increase from 800m to 1.3b. Far from being a developed country trend, aging is actually fastest in the low and middle income countries. Where it took the European countries over 100 years to transit to an aging population, countries like Bangladesh will do this in just a few decades. In fact, 60 percent of the 1.3 billion people will live in the developing countries.

“We know that people in developing countries continue to work into old age even though the type of work may change. Many work in the informal sector and women especially carry on providing unpaid labour at home. Yet our thinking is locked in outdated associations with people in the 60s onwards as somehow inherently, homogeneously vulnerable. It’s time we embrace the change and take action. Financial inclusion of people across the life course, facilitating social pensions, linking pensions with other financial instruments, and working closely with older women and men will help us all to adjust to the new world.”

Parul Khanna, associate director of projects for Micro Pension Foundation, continued the conversation. She noted this:

“Globally, rapid advancements in technology, telecommunications, and banking outreach have had a powerful impact on the ability of governments to deliver targeted fiscal transfers to the poor, including pension benefits to the elderly. Simultaneously, technology and telecom are reshaping financial services access and delivery, especially among low income excluded households. Most developing countries have a large young workforce, a predominantly informal labour market with modest incomes and savings capacities, a huge pension coverage gap, low banking and formal finance penetration, and limited capacity for large scale fiscal transfers.”

Parul presented their Gift-a-Pension project, which provides micropensions to low-income domestic workers, and she called on participants and readers to take action:
logo-Gap

“Can we do something for informal workers around us…[those] who touch our lives every day? Our maids, drivers, security guards or our washerwomen? Or the guy who we buy our bread from every day? Or our barbers? That seems feasible, right?

“For example, it is possible for you to imagine going home today, and spending just a few minutes with your maid or driver to tell them about the importance of saving for old age. And then spending just 10 minutes on the internet to open their own pension account for them? If your answer is yes, then you have within you the power to gift 20 years of a dignified old age to your maid or driver. And if all did this, we could collectively, as a civil society, change the lives of 40 million domestic help forever. Which, incidentally, is more than the total population of Canada.

It took India 6 years to get 3 million low-income people to start a pension account. If each of us go home today and gift a pension to just 1 excluded person in our lives, we could reach from 3 million to 43 million by this weekend!  After all, just 10 minutes of your time can change 20 years of someone else’s life. You can be the change! Try now with Gift-a-Pension.


Thank you to all panelists for contributing to this important conversation about the importance of saving for old age and how organizations can simplify the process for their clients. We also wish to thank all participants who submitted thought-provoking questions and comments to help make the session interactive!

Related resources:

Film on the micro pension model

About Gift-A-Pension


CFI launched a Campaign Commitment in 2014! We invite you also to…

Get Inspired. Set a Goal. Make a Commitment.

Join the movement to help 100 million families lift themselves out of extreme poverty.

#tbt: What Happens When You Measure Your Clients’ Poverty Levels

Microfinance clients in the Philippines (December 31, 1997, to December 31, 2012). Check this out in the 2014 Report.

Lea en español *** Lisez en français


The 2014 State of the Campaign Report features various actors in the microfinance sector that are taking steps to helping their clients lift themselves out of poverty. In this interview with Julie Peachey (director of social performance management at the Grameen Foundation), learn about how the Progress out of Poverty Index® (PPI®) can help organizations better target the poorest. Peachey provides examples of PPI usage as well as recommendations on how to best make use of the results provided by the tool. Below is a summary of the key points from the interview.


Julie Peachey, Director of Social Performance, Grameen Foundation

Julie Peachey, Director of Social Performance, Grameen Foundation

The Grameen Foundation developed the Progress out of Poverty Index (PPI) because they noticed that microfinance institutions were failing to meet poverty outreach targets, and, worse, there really wasn’t a good way to determine how poor clients actually were.

The PPI is a ten question survey based on a household’s income and expenditures, and it is available for 50 countries. The PPI allows an organization to measure in absolute terms how poor a client’s household is by calculating the likelihood that they are living below one of several poverty lines. Further, the PPI can be used by any organization that has a social mission to serve and reach the poorest.

The PPI can be used for:

  1. Targeting the very poor (those living on less than $1.25 a day) to make sure that they aren’t being excluded.
  2. Product design to make sure that poorer clients aren’t being excluded from the organization’s services based on the way their products are designed.
  3. Tracking progress over time to see if the client is becoming better off and moving out of poverty.

Generally speaking, Grameen Foundation has found that organizations that start using the PPI find that their clients are not as poor as the organizations thought and, as a result, that they aren’t actually reaching the very poor.

For example, at CARD Bank in the Philippines, the Grameen Foundation used the PPI to survey the poverty level of clients receiving a new product in order to determine what CARD needed to do to make the product viable. When they saw the product was not taking off as expected, they lowered the price and then experienced a great increase in clients opening up a new account. They then looked at the PPI score before and after the prices were lowered.

Before the change, approximately 27% of clients who opened an account were below the $2.50 a day line; after the price was lowered, CARD saw an increase in the number of clients opening an account as well as a 7-8% increase in the number of clients opening accounts that were below the $2.50 a day line. The conclusion is that lowering the price of the product made it more feasible to the poorer population.

Organizations are also able to use the PPI to calculate the percentage of very poor households in a given area they are serving. The Grameen Foundation conducted a series of “poverty outreach reports” that looked at “concentration, penetration, and scale, which allows an organization to really look more deeply into what the overall total percentage of poor people that are [being] served ideally to be able to see the progress over time.”


Relevant resources